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What is the residual sugar on a glycoprotein that has a simple glycosylation?


1.                   Consider the process of N-linked Glycosylation

  1. What organelles are required?
  2. What is the residual sugar on a glycoprotein that has a simple glycosylation?
  3. If glycosylation is complete what will be the final sugar on the glycoform?
  4. Why may N-linked glycosylation be important?



2.                   For genetic-level control, please explain the process of

  1. Enzyme repression
  2. Enzyme induction


Provide an example for each process.



3.                   -Lactams are the most widely used class of antibiotics. Since the discovery of benzylpenicillin in the 1920s, thousands of new penicillin derivatives and related -Lactam classes Cephalosporins, cephamycin’s, monobactams and carbapenems have been discovered.

Select one such molecule or class of -Lactams and explain their:


  1. Mechanism of action, its market & global impact in antibiotics
  2. Briefly the manufacturing process. In the description attempt to capture points like;
    1. What type of organism and reactors are might typically be used for large-scale production?
    2. Is this a batch, fed batch, or continuous process?
  • How is are these typically purified?
  1. What are some typical scales of production?
  2. What are some regulatory considerations (i.e. FDA regulations) for -Lactams?



4.                   What are some contributing elements that influence the Economics of an Industrial scale Bioprocess? And For example; if I were to compare a Batch process versus Continuous process, what factors within the process might I need to evaluate to better understand the associated production cost?






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