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In _______(P), what is the effect of _______(I) on ______(O) compared with _______(C) within ________ (T)?





Alarm safety




Diabetes management

Discharge teaching


Functional ability

Health and wellbeing of nurses

Hospital readmission rates

Infection control



Prenatal teaching

Prevention of post operative complications

Prevention of pressure ulcers

Sleep disturbances





Take one of the above topics and form a PICO(T) question with it. Then search for a quantitative nursing research article. The article must help to answer your PICO question. It does not need to answer the question completely. The article must either be from a nursing journal or it must have at least one nurse author (It can meet both of these conditions, but it does not need to). It must be a report of one quantitative research study. It must have been published within the last five years. It may not be a qualitative study, a quality improvement article, an evidence based practice project, a mixed methods study, a systematic review, or a retrospective study. You may receive help from the librarians in your search, but you are ultimately responsible for ensuring that your article meets the requirements.




First, identify each element of your PICO on the line below, then take a look at the templates below to help you formulate a PICO(T) question.

P: Population/disease ( i.e. age, gender, ethnicity, with a certain disorder)

P: _______________________________________________________________


I: Intervention or Variable of Interest (exposure to a disease, risk behavior, prognostic factor) Note: Not every question will have an intervention (as in a meaning question – see below).

I: _______________________________________________________________


C: Comparison: (could be a placebo or “business as usual” as in no disease, absence of risk factor).  Note: This is not used in a meaning question – see below.

C: ______________________________________________________________


O: Outcome: (risk of disease, accuracy of a diagnosis, rate of occurrence of adverse outcome)

O: _______________________________________________________________


T: Time: The time it takes to demonstrate an outcome (e.g. the time it takes for the intervention to achieve an outcome or how long participants are observed). This is an optional “add-on” for a PICO question.




For PICO questions about a nursing intervention/therapy:

In _______(P), what is the effect of _______(I) on ______(O) compared with _______(C) within ________ (T)?


For PICO etiology questions:

Are ____ (P) who have _______ (I) at ___ (increased/decreased) risk for/of_______ (O) compared with ______ (P) with/without ______ (C) over _____ (T)?


For PICO questions involving prevention:

For ________ (P) does the use of ______ (I) reduce the future risk of ________ (O) compared with _________ (C)?


For PICO questions that predict:

Does __________ (I) influence ________ (O) in patients who have _______ (P) over ______ (T)?



When you have decided on the final form of your topic and your PICO(T) question, fill out the worksheet and upload it in Canvas. Be sure to upload your quantitative nursing research article as well.




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