Part A: Engaging with Pyramids and The Demographic Transition Model (16pts in total).
1) Download* population pyramids (also known as demographic profiles) for 2020 and 2060 for one ‘more developed’ country and one ‘less developed’ country (see list below).
*Download figures from: https://population.un.org/wpp/Graphs/DemographicProfiles/ (follow this pathway: click on ‘Graphs’ à click on ‘Demographic Profiles’ à Select location (see list below) à click on ‘Population Pyramids’, you should see four pyramids for different time periods.
Country List (choose one from each category):
More Developed: Canada, Austria, New Zealand, France
Less Developed: Laos, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Oman
Include the 4 pyramids in your answer, make sure they are clearly labelled, and answer the following questions:
- Describe the key differences in the two country’s populations in both time periods, with reference to the key drivers of demographic change (i.e. TFR, CBR, CDR, RNI) (4-6 sentences).
- Discuss the key trends in each country’s population between 2020 and 2060. What stage of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) are these countries passing through? (3-4 sentences).
- Describe one specific social policy intervention that each country’s central government might take to serve its population during the period 2020-2060. Provide one piece of evidence from the pyramids to support your reasoning. (4 sentences)
Part B: Exploring the Urban ‘Slum’
- Find the article: Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser (2018) – “Urbanization”. Published online at org. Retrieved from: https://ourworldindata.org/urbanization [Online Resource].
- Read section 4 Urban Slum Populations. What organization’s definition of slum household do the authors cite? (1pt)
- Consult the interactive figure “Share of urban population living in slums.” Click the Chart tab, then ‘Add country’, then add the data for the lesser developed country that you produced pyramids for in Question 1 in Part A above. Also add the data for “Least developed countries: UN Classification.” Download (or screenshot) the chart and include it with your answers to the following questions:
- For the country you added, what is the percentage of urban population living in slums in 2014? Is it higher or lower than the average of the least developed countries? (1-2 sentences)
- For the country you added, what is the trend in the percentage living in slums since 2005? Is it the same as the other countries on the chart? (1-2 sentences)
- Consult the interactive figure “Urban population living in slum households.” Click “change country” to indicate the data for your “lesser developed country” from Part A, Question 1 above. Download the chart and include it with your answers to the following questions:
- In a table, list the figures for total population, the urban population not living in slum households, and the urban population living in slum households in 2014.
- The authors claim that overall, “despite continued population growth and urbanization rates across most countries, the absolute number of people living in urban slum households has also been falling across many countries.” Is this true for the country you examined? How would you describe the trend? (1-2 sentences)
- Using the population pyramids from Part A and these charts as evidence, discuss two challenges faced by the urban population of the lesser-developed country you are analysing. (4-5 sentences)
Part C: Global Water Demand (12pts in total)
- Through the Google Scholar or any online database, download the following scientific article:
Charles J Vörösmarty, Pamela Green, Joseph Salisbury, Richard B Lammers, 2000.
Global water resources: vulnerability from climate change and population growth. Science, 289 (5477), pp. 284-288.
- Read the article, study the maps, and answer the following questions:
- What is the period covered by the model projection?
- What are the three components of total water demand in the hydrological models presented in the paper?
- With reference to Figure 3, what are the three scenarios presented? Which variable is held constant and which changes in each scenario?
- If these maps and the model provide the article’s key evidence, what is the main claim of the article about changes in water availability and scarcity? What is a reason presented? In your own words, how will population growth, growing demand, and climate change interact in producing water scarcity in the future? (4-5 sentences)
Engaging with Pyramids and The Demographic Transition Model